# Polygons and Metallic Means

## Introduction

From Polygons, Diagonals, and the Bronze Mean by Antonia R. BuitragoThe Metallic Means Family (MMF) was introduced in 1998 by Vera W. de Spinadel [1998; 1999]. Its members are the positive solutions of the quadratic equation $x^2-px-q=0$, where the parameters $p$ and $q$ are positive integer numbers. The more relevant of them are the Golden Mean and the Silver Mean, the first members of the subfamily which is obtained by considering $q=1$. The members $\sigma_p$, $p=1,2,3 \ldots$ of this subfamily share properties which are the generalization of the Golden Mean properties. For instance, they all may be obtained by the limit of consecutive terms of certain "

generalized secondary Fibonacci sequences" (GSFS) and they are the only numbers which yield geometric sequences:$$ \ldots, \frac{1}{{\sigma_p}^3}, \frac{1}{{\sigma_p}^2}, \frac{1}{\sigma_p}, 1, \sigma_p, {\sigma_p}^2, {\sigma_p}^3, \dots $$

with additive properties

$$ 1 + p \cdot \sigma_p = {\sigma_p}^2 $$ $$ {\sigma_p}^k + p \cdot {\sigma_p}^{k+1} = {\sigma_p}^{k+2} $$ $$ \frac{1}{{\sigma_p}^k} = \frac{p}{{\sigma_p}^{k+1}} + \frac{1}{{\sigma_p}^{k+2}}, \mbox{ } k = 1,2,3,\ldots \ . $$

In *Polygons, Diagonals, and the Bronze Mean*, Antonia Redondo Buitrago demonstrates that the bronze mean does not appear as a side to diagonal relationship in a regular polygon. Yet there still remains the question of whether or not metallic means appear as a ratio between line segments like in the pentagon, Figure 1.

## Logic

Figure 2

Figure 3

Let there be a regular polygon with $n$ sides and vertices and a circumradius of 1. Connect each vertex pair with a diagonal $d_i$ and let $P_{d_i}$ be a set of intersection points between $d_i$ and each other diagonal:

$$ P_{d_i} = \{ p_1, p_2, p_3, \ldots, p_j \} $$

where $j$ is the total number of intersection points for a given diagonal $ d_i$.

Let $L_{d_i}$ be the set of lengths between pairs of points in $P_{d_i}$:

$$ L_{d_i} = \{ \overline{p_1 p_2}, \overline{p_1 p_3}, \ldots, \overline{p_{j-1} p_j} \}. $$

For a regular polygon, only a single vertex and its diagonals are needed due to rotational symmetry.

For a vertex, the number of diagonals required to encompass all possible lengths of a regular polygon is $ \lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor $ due to reflectional symmetry. Reflectional symmetry reduces the number of diagonals by half because diagonals opposite each other across a line of symmetry have the same set of line segments; even-sided polygons also include the diagonal that is the circumdiameter.

Taking figure 2 as an example,

$$ L_{d_1} = L_{d_6},\ L_{d_2} = L_{d_5}, \ L_{d_3} = L_{d_4} \text. $$

And for figure 3,

$$ L_{d_1} = L_{d_7},\ L_{d_2} = L_{d_6},\ L_{d_3} = L_{d_5},\ L_{d_4} = L_{d_4} \text. $$

Then, the complete set of lengths for a regular polygon with $n$-sides is

$$ L_n = \bigcup\limits_{i=1}^{\lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor} L_{d_i} \text. $$

Then to test if a metallic mean $\sigma_p$ exists as a ratio of lengths in $L_n$, we find the intersection between $L_n$ and $ \sigma_p \cdot L_n $:

$$ \begin{array}{rl} M_{\sigma_p} = & L_n \cap (\sigma_p \cdot L_n) \ = & \{ x \in L_n : \exists l \in L_n (x = \sigma_p \cdot l) \} \text. \ \end{array} $$

If the intersection $ M_{\sigma_p} $ is not empty then the metallic mean exists as a ratio of lengths.

## Example

Let's take a look at a simple example, the pentagon, which has an established relationship with the first metallic mean, the golden mean $\varphi $. The pentagon has the characteristic that any diagonal is representative of all diagonals so we'll use the blue diagonal from figure 1.

Let $L_5$ be the complete set of line segments for a pentagon

$$ L_5 = \{ \overline{AB}, \overline{AC}, \overline{AD}, \overline{BC}, \overline{BD}, \overline{CD} \} $$

and the lengths are

$$ L_5 = \{ 0.44902, 0.72654, 1.17557, 1.90211 \} \text. $$

So to test for the first metallic mean, we multiply $L_5$ by $ \sigma_1 $, where $ \sigma_1 = 1.61803 $,

$$ \sigma_1 \cdot L_5 = \{ 0.72654, 1.17557, 1.90211, 3.07768 \} $$

and we find that all but one is a member of $L_5$:

$$ M_{\sigma_1} = \{ 0.72654, 1.17557, 1.90211 \} \text. $$

Additionally we can test for the fourth metallic mean by multiplying $ L_5 $ by $ \sigma_4 $ ($ \varphi^3 $), where $ \sigma_4 = 4.23606 $,

$$ \sigma_4 \cdot L_5 = \{ 1.90211, 3.07768, 4.97979, 8.05748 \} $$

and we find that only one is a member of $ L_5 $:

$$ M_{\sigma_4} = \{ 1.90211 \} \text. $$

## Program

```
install required packages: pip3 install -r requirements.txt
usage: main.py [-h] [--dps DPS] [--buffer BUFFER] [-s] n mean_id
positional arguments:
n # of sides for regular polygon
mean_id metallic mean to test for
optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
--dps DPS decimal precision [default: 50]
--buffer BUFFER decimal precision buffer [default: 5]
-s, --show_matches show matches
examples:
python3 main.py 5 1
python3 main.py 8 2
python3 main.py 13 3
```

The program is written in Python3.7 using mpmath for arbitrary-precision. *mpmath* is required because double-precision has an insufficient number of significant digits to account for the very tiny variations in lengths which result in false positives.

*mpmath* is set to 55 decimal-places, an arbitrarily sufficient number, with 5 decimal-places as a buffer to account for minor cumulative computational errors. Then the computed *mpmath* values are converted to decimal string literals with 50 significant digits allowing for string comparisons of relatively precise decimal values.

lib/utils.py

```
import mpmath as mp
# nstr() is a mpmath function that converts an mpf or mpc
# to a decimal string literal with n significant digits.
def getkey(val): return mp.nstr(val, SIG_DIGITS)
# return metallic mean for specified n
def mmf(n): return (n+mp.sqrt(n*n+4))/2
```

lib/vector2.py

```
import mpmath as mp
from .utils import getkey
class Vector2(object):
def __init__(self, x=0, y=0):
if mp.almosteq(x, 0): x = 0.0
if mp.almosteq(y, 0): y = 0.0
self.x = mp.mpf(x)
self.y = mp.mpf(y)
def __add__(self, other):
return Vector2(self.x+other.x, self.y+other.y)
def __sub__(self, other):
return Vector2(self.x-other.x, self.y-other.y)
def __mul__(self, other):
if isinstance(other, Vector2):
return Vector2(self.x*other.x, self.y*other.y)
else:
return Vector2(self.x*other, self.y*other)
def __str__(self):
return '<Vector2 x=%s y=%s>'%(str(self.x)[:10], str(self.y)[:10])
def __repr__(self):
return self.__str__()
def __hash__(self):
return hash((getkey(self.x), getkey(self.y)))
def __eq__(self, other):
return mp.almosteq(self.x, other.x) and mp.almosteq(self.y, other.y)
def cross(self, other):
return self.x*other.y - self.y*other.x
def dist(self, other):
return (self-other).len()
def dot(self, other):
return self.x*other.x + self.y*other.y
def len(self):
return mp.sqrt(self.dot(self))
```

lib/linesegment.py

```
import mpmath as mp
class LineSegment(object):
def __init__(self, start, end):
self.start = start
self.end = end
self.vec = end-start
def intersect(self, other):
numerator = (other.start-self.start).cross(other.vec)
denominator = self.vec.cross(other.vec)
if (not numerator or mp.isnormal(numerator)) and mp.isnormal(denominator):
ratio = numerator/denominator
return self.vec*ratio + self.start
return None
```

1. Generate the vertices of the polygons and connect each pair of vertices with a diagonal.

main.py

```
# n is polygon size
theta = 2*pi/n
# calculate vertices
vertices = []
for i in range(n):
x = cos(theta*i)
y = sin(theta*i)
vertex = Vector2(x, y)
vertices.append(vertex)
# generate diagonals
diagonals = []
for i in range(n):
for j in range(i+1, n):
v1 = vertices[i]
v2 = vertices[j]
diag = LineSegment(v1, v2)
diagonals.append(diag)
```

2. For each diagonal calculate and collect intersection points between itself and other diagonals. Then within the same iteration calculate and collect distances (lengths) between pairs of points in a dictionary using a consistent key for the mpmath value.

main.py

```
# calculate line segments lengths
lengths = dict()
for i, diag in enumerate(diagonals[:n//2]):
# find intersection points
points = set()
for other in diagonals[i+1:]:
# find the intersection point between diagonals
point = diag.intersect(other)
# ensure point lies within unit circle
if point and point not in points and abs(point) <= 1:
points.add(point)
# calculate lengths for pairs of points on the same diagonal
if len(points):
points = list(points)
for j, point1 in enumerate(points):
for point2 in points[j+1:]:
dist = point2.dist(point1)
key = getkey(dist)
if key not in lengths:
lengths[key] = dist
```

3. Iterate over the set and multiply each length by a metallic mean and test to see if the resultant value is contained in the length set.

main.py

```
# test for specified metallic mean
count = 0
for k,l in lengths.items():
key = getkey(mean*l)
if key in lengths:
count += 1
```

## Metallic mean selection *

We could test every polygon with every metallic mean but eventually the number of lengths grows too large to compute by hand or a modern desktop computer. So it is prudent to find a method for determining appropriate metallic means for polygons or conversely, a method for identifying prospective polygons for metallic means.

Now back to the definition of a metallic mean. They are the positive solutions of the characteristic equation $x^2 - px - q = 0 $ when $q := 1$ and $p$ is a positive integer. Then the quadratic equation is

$$ x^2 - px - 1 = 0 $$

and the quadratic formula to compute the means is

$$ \sigma_p = \frac{p+\sqrt{p^2+4}}{2} \text. $$

Selecting appropriate polygons to test for metallic means $ \sigma_p $ appears to be related either to the discriminant, $ p^2+4 $, or the simplified form of the radical $ \sqrt{p^2+4} $. metallic means that are a power of a lower mean appear alongside their lower counterpart.

In the case of $ p=1 $, the golden mean $\varphi$, the discriminant is 5 and the simplified radical is $ \sqrt{5} $, associating the metallic mean with the pentagon and polygons with a number of sides that is a multiple of 5. For $p=4$, $ \varphi^3 $, the discriminant is 20 and the simplified radical is $ 2\sqrt{5} $ which is also associated with the pentagon and polygons with a number of sides that is a multiple of 5. For $p=11$, $ \varphi^5 $, the discriminant is 125 and the simplified radical is $ 5\sqrt{5} $ but does not appear until $n$ is a multiple of 10 or 15. Similarily $p=29$ appears when $n$ is a multiple of 20 or 30 and $p=76$ appears when $n$ is a multiple of 30.

In the case of $ p = 3 $, the discriminant is $ 13 $ and the radical is $ \sqrt{13} $, associating $ p = 3 $ to the tridecagon.

In the case of $ p = 6 $, the discriminant is $ 40 $ and the simplified radical is $ 2\sqrt{10} $. The associated polygon is a 40-gon.

In the case of $ p = 8 $, the discriminant is 68 but the associated regular polygon is a heptadecagon ($ n=17 $), which relates to the simplified radical $ 2\sqrt{17} $.

* As of writing this, I have been unable to determine values for $n$ when $p$ is 7,9 or 10 for $ p \leq 10 $.

## Visualization tool

## Results

$p$ | Radical | $n$-gons | Trigonometric expression |
---|---|---|---|

1 | $$ \sqrt{5} $$ | 5x | $$ 2\cos\frac{\pi}{5} $$ |

2 | $$ \sqrt{8} $$ | 8x | $$ \tan\frac{3\pi}{8} $$ |

3 | $$ \sqrt{13} $$ | 13x |
Simplified (Wikipedia)
$$ 8\cos\frac{\pi}{13}\cos\frac{3\pi}{13}\cos\frac{4\pi}{13} $$
Original $$ 2\cos\frac{\pi}{13}\left(\sin\frac{2\pi}{13}\csc\frac{3\pi}{13}+1\right) $$ |

4 | $$ 2\sqrt{5} $$ | 5x | $$ 8\cos^{3}\frac{\pi}{5} $$ |

5 | $$ \sqrt{29} $$ | 29x |
Simplified (Wikipedia)
$$
128\cos\frac{\pi}{29}\cos\frac{4\pi}{29}\cos\frac{5\pi}{29}\cos\frac{6\pi}{29}\cos\frac{7\pi}{29}\cos\frac{9\pi}{29}\cos\frac{13\pi}{29}
$$
Original $$ \frac { \sin\frac{19\pi}{29} - \frac{1}{2}\csc\frac{19\pi}{29} ( \cos\frac{25\pi}{29}+1 ) - \sin\frac{25\pi}{29} \sin\frac{3\pi}{29} \csc\frac{20\pi}{29} } { \sin\frac{25\pi}{29} \sin\frac{5\pi}{29} \csc\frac{21\pi}{29} - \sin\frac{16\pi}{29} \sin\frac{\pi}{29} \csc\frac{7\pi}{29} } $$ |

6 | $$ \sqrt{40} $$ | 40x | $$ \frac { \sin\frac{21\pi}{40} } { \sin\frac{7\pi}{8} - \sin\frac{5\pi}{8} \sin\frac{\pi}{40} \csc\frac{11\pi}{40} - \sin\frac{19\pi}{20} \sin\frac{9\pi}{40} \csc\frac{7\pi}{10} } $$ |

7 | $$ \sqrt{53} $$ | ||

8 | $$ 2\sqrt{17} $$ | 17x | $$ \frac{ \sin\frac{6\pi}{17} \sin\frac{7\pi}{17} \sin\frac{3\pi}{17} \sin\frac{12\pi}{17} } { \sin\frac{\pi}{17} \sin\frac{9\pi}{17} \sin\frac{4\pi}{17} \sin\frac{2\pi}{17} } $$ |

9 | $$ \sqrt{85} $$ | ||

10 | $$ \sqrt{104} $$ | ||

11 | $$ 5\sqrt{5} $$ | 10+5x | $$ 32\cos^5\frac{\pi}{5} $$ |

12 | $$ 2\sqrt{37} $$ | 74 | $$ \frac{ \sin\frac{8\pi}{37} \sin\frac{5\pi}{74} \sin\frac{13\pi}{74} \sin\frac{17\pi}{74} \sin\frac{31\pi}{74} }{ \sin\frac{11\pi}{37} \sin\frac{\pi}{74} \sin\frac{7\pi}{74} \sin\frac{9\pi}{74} \sin\frac{33\pi}{74} } $$ |

If anyone happens to identify 7, 9 or 10 please let me know at *tellerm<at>protonmail.com* or on Twitter @tellerm. Thank you.

## References

[1] Vera W. de Spinadel. (1999). *The Family of metallic means.**Visual Mathematics 1, 3.* http://members.tripod.com/vismath1/spinadel/

[2] Antonia R. Buitrago. (2007). "Polygons, Diagonals and the Bronze Mean", *Nexus Network Journal 9: 321.*

## Links

- CYCLOTOMIC POINTS AND ALGEBRAIC PROPERTIES OF POLYGON DIAGONALS

Thomas Grubb, Christian Wolird